Onshore CSEM

Onshore Controlled-Source Electromagnetics

Different onshore controlled-source electromagnetic methods have been developed for a wide scope of prospective ranges from near surface to deep targets.

In this section, only induction-based methods are considered.

Acquisitions could be split in 2 kinds: Time and Frequency domain.

With appropriate EM systems mounted on fixed-wing or helicopter aircrafts, Airborne Electromagnetics (AEM) is now a well-established tool for mineral exploration (starting with highly conductive sulfide ore bodies), and of interest for ground water exploration, Geothermics, HC exploration (shallow hazards and oil sands) (Smith, 2010).

Historically, AEM was developed after the Second World War for mineral exploration. In the noughties, development of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been a crucial factor for late AEM development.

Then, AEM acquisitions could be split in 2 kinds: Time and Frequency domain.

For near surface applications, ground conductivity meters became popular in the seventies.

The current section is composed of 5 lessons: