mCSEM > Field equipment and processing

Nowadays, 2 main commercial apparatus can be used to acquire mCSEM data. The most used one is the Nodal system offered by EMGS (case a from the theory subchapter). The survey is usually done using a mobile Horizontal Electric Dipole source, located slightly above the seafloor and an array of electric and magnetic dipole receivers located directly on the sea floor (

More recently (2014), PGS ( has developed a towed EM system that can be used together with seismic acquisition. HED source and receivers are towed near by the sea surface (Engelmark F. et al, 2014).

Most mCSEM data are processed in the frequency domain.