Most sincere thanks to Dan Herold (Parallel Geoscience Corporation, and Frederick Delay (university of the Strasbourg) for their valuable advice and encouraging words in the preparation of the course.

Special thanks to the companies and institutes which provide examples, pictures and videos:

Special thanks to Marie Pierre Doizelet for her photos of nature which give the readers serenity for looking at EM equations with complete peace of mind.

Special thanks to Christophe Monnier (society We would like to take this opportunity to highlight the excellent work in the conception and realization of our e-book.


This online EM course does not constitute a complete course in itself; referral to references remains essential. To do so, the reader is kindly invited to take note of our selection of references, gathering fundamental papers and books, sorted by topics:

General Matters:

  • Klein, J., & Lajoie, J. J., 1980, Electromagnetic prospecting for minerals: In “Practical geophysics for the Exploration geologists”, edited by R. Van Blaricom, Northwest Mining Association, 239-290.
  • Nabighian, M., Macnae, J., 2005, Electrical and EM methods, 1980-2005, SEG, 75, S42-S45.
  • Nabighian, M. S., and M. W. Asten, 2002, Metalliferous mining geophysics — State of the art in the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the new millennium: Geophysics, 67, 964–978.
  • Zhdanov, M., 2010, Electromagnetic geophysics: Notes from the past and the road ahead, Geophysics, 75, A49-A66.
  • Mari J.L., Glangeaud F., Coppens, F., 1999, Signal processing for geologists and geophysicists, Editions Technip, Paris, ISBN 2-7108-0752-1.

Ground Penetrating Radar:

  • Dubois J. C., 1995, Borehole radar experiment in limestone: analysis and data processing. First Break, 13, 2, 57-67
  • Girard J. F., 2002, Ground Penetrating Radar, Imagerie géoradar et modélisation des diffractions multiples, PhD.- Thesis, Université de Strasbourg I.,
  • Van Overmeeren R.A., 1994, Monitoring of a water well field by Georadar, 56th EAGE  congress, Vienna, paper I015.


  • Bourgeois B., Suignard K., Perrusson G., 2000. Electric and magnetic dipoles for geometric interpretation of three-component electromagnetic data in geophysics. Inverse Problems, 16, 1225-1261.
  • Cagniard, L, 1953, Basic Theory of the Magneto-telluric Method of Geophysical Prospecting, Geophysics, 18(3), 605-635.
  • Chave A.D. (Editor) and Jones A. (Editor) (2012). The magnetotelluric method: theory and practice. Cambridge University Press, 548 pp.
  • Chave A.D. and Thomson D.J. (2004). Bounded influence magnetotelluric response function estimation. Geophysical Journal International, 157(3), 988-1006.
  • Key, KW, Constable SC, Weiss CJ.  2006.  Mapping 3D salt using the 2D marine magnetotelluric method: Case study from Gemini Prospect, Gulf of Mexico. Geophysics. 71:B17-B27.
  • Murthy, D.N., Veeraswamy, K., Harinarayana, T., Singh, U.K., Santosh, M., 2014, Electrical structure beneath Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: a magnetotelluric study, Acta Geod Geophys 49: 17. Doi:10.1007/s40328-013-0039-z.
  • Tournerie B., Chouteau M., Marcotte D. (2007). Magnetotelluric static shift: Estimation and removal using the cokriging method. Geophysics, 72(1), F25-F34.
  • Vozoff K. (1991). The magnetotelluric method. In: M.N. Nabighian (Editor), Electromagnetic Methods in Geophysics. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, pp. 641-711.
  • Wawrzyniak P., Sailhac P. and Marquis G. (2013) – Robust error on magnetotelluric impedance estimates. Geophysical Prospecting, 61, 533-546, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01094.x.

Magnetotellurics: geothermal field case:

  • Coppo N., Baltassat J.-M., Girard J.-F., Jacob T., Martelet G., Mathieu F., Wawrzyniak P. (2014) – Exploration géophysique (magnétotellurique et gravimétrie) du potentiel géothermique de la Martinique (Montagne Pelée, Anses d’Arlet, Pitons du Carbet et Lamentin). Rapport final. BRGM/RP-62745-FR, 278 p., ill., 160 fig.,  10ann, ,
  • Gadalia, A., J.M. Baltassat, V. Bouchot, S. Caritg, N. Coppo, F. Gal, J.F. Girard, A. Gutierrez, T. Jacob,  G. Martelet, S. Rad, A.L. Tailame, H. Traineau, B. Vittecoq, P. Wawrzyniak, C. Zammit : Compléments d’exploration géothermique en Martinique : conclusions et recommandations pour les zones de la Montagne Pelée, des Anses d’Arlet, des Pitons du Carbet et du Lamentin, 2014),
  • Baltassat J.-M., Miéhé J.-M., Debeglia N., Dupont F. et Martelet G. (2003) - Réévaluation du potentiel géothermique dans les régions de Morne Rouge Montagne Pelée et de Diamant (Martinique) : étude géophysique. Rapport BRGM/RP-52548-FR, 48p., 20 fig., 9 ann,
  • Genter A., et Roig J.-Y. (2003) – Réévalutation du potentiel géothermique dans les régions de Morne Rouge Montagne Pelée et de Diamant (Martinique) : étude géologique. Rapport BRGM/RP-52546-FR, 46 p., 18 fig., 2 tab, ,
  • Germa, A., Quidelleur, X., Labanieh, S., Lahitte, P., Chauvel, C. (2010) - The eruptive history of Morne Jacob volcano (Martinique Island, French West Indies): geochronology, geomorphology and geochemistry of the earliest volcanism in the recent Lesser Antilles arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 198 (3-4), 297-310.
  • Hautot, S., R. Single, J. Watson, N. Harrop, D. A. Jerram, P. Tarits, and K. A. Whaler (2007) – 3-D magnetotelluric inversion and model validation with gravity data for the investigation of large igneous provinces, Geophysical Journal International, 170(3),1418-1430.
  • Raharjo I.B. (2012) - Geophysical signatures of volcano-hosted geothermal systems. PhD Thesis, University of Utah.
  • L—S. Gailler, V. Bouchot, G. Martelet, I. Thinon, N. Coppo, J-M. Baltassat, B. Bourgeois, 2014, Contribution of multi-method geophysics to the understanding of a high-temperature geothermal province: The Bouillante area (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 275 (2014) 34–50.

Airborne Electromagnetics:

  • Allard, M., 2007, On the origin of HTEM species, In “Proceedings of Exploration 07: Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration” edited by B. Milkereit, 355-374.
  • Hodges, G., Amine, D., Annison, C., 2010, The Power of Frequency Domain EM: Principles and Case Histories, ASEG 2010 – Sydney, Australia.
  • Klein, J., & Lajoie, J. J., 1980, Electromagnetic prospecting for minerals: In “Practical geophysics for the Exploration geologists”, edited by R. Van Blaricom, Northwest Mining Association, 239-290.
  • Legault, J.M., 2010, Helicopter electromagnetic (vtem™ and ztem™) applications for gold exploration, kegs-pdac symposium, Toronto.
  • Legault, J.M., 2015, Airborne electromagnetic systems – state of the art and future directions: CSEG Recorder, pp 38-49.
  • Smith, R.S., 2010, Airborne electromagnetic methods: applications to minerals, water and hydrocarbon exploration: CSEG Recorder, 35, 4 p.
  • Thomson, S., Fountain, D., and Watts, T., 2007, Airborne geophysics – evolution and revolution: In “Proceedings of Exploration 07: Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration” edited by B. Milkereit, 19-37.
  • Vallée, M.A., Smith, R.S., and Keating, P., 2011, Metalliferous mining geophysics — State of the art after a decade in the new millennium: Geophysics, 76, p. W31–W50.

Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic methods:

  • Andréis, D., and L. MacGregor, 2008, Controlled-source electromagnetic sounding in shallow water: Principles and applications: Geophysics.
  • Alvarez, P., A. Alvarez, MacGregor L., Bolivar F.,, Keirstead R. and Martin T., Reservoir properties prediction using controlled-source electromagnetic, prestack seismic, and well-log data: Case study in the Hoop Area, Barents Sea, Norway: Interpretation, Vol. 5,No. 2 (May 2017); p. 1–17, 20 FIGS., 3 TABLES
  • Chave, A. D., and C. S. Cox, 1982, Controlled electromagnetic sources for measuring electrical conductivity beneath the oceans: Part 1 —Forward problem and model study: Journal of Geophysical Research.
  • Constable, S., R. Parker, and C. Constable, 1987, Occam's inversion: A practical algorithm for generating smooth models from electromagnetic sounding data. Geophysics 52, 289-300.
  • Constable, S.C., 2010, Ten years of marine CSEM for hydrocarbon exploration: GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 75, NO. 5.
  • Constable, S., and C. J. Weiss, 2006, Mapping thin resistors and hydrocarbons with marine EM methods: Insights from 1D modeling: Geophysics.
  • Constable S. and Srnka L.J. 2007, Special section-marine controlled-source electromagnetic methods for hydrocarbon exploration, Geophysics 72 (2)
  • Eidesmo, T., S. Ellingsrud, L. M. MacGregor, S. Constable, M. C. Sinha, S. Johanson, F. N. Kong, and H.Westerdahl, 2002, Sea bed logging SBL, a new method for remote and direct identification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deep water areas: First Break.
  • Engelmark F., Mattsson J., McKay A. and Du Z., 2014, Towed  streamer EM comes age, First break 32, 75-78.
  • Key, K., 2016.  A 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data, Geophysical Journal International.  2016 207: 571-588
  • Li, Y. G., and S. Constable, 2010, Transient electromagnetic in shallow water: insights from 1D modeling: Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 53, 737–742.
  • MacGregor, L., and J. Tomlinson, 2014, Marine controlled-source electromagnetic methods in the hydrocarbon industry: A tutorial on method and practice: Interpretation, SEG Geophysics.
  • Mattsson J., Lindqvist P., Juhasz R., Bjornemo E., 2012, Noise reduction and error analysis forv a Towed EM System, SEG Las Vegas annual meeting, DOI

Seismoelectric method:

  • Dean T., C. Dupuis, R. Herrmann and J. Valuri, 2012, A brute strength approach to improving the quality of seismoelectric data. SEG extended abstract. SEG Las Vegas
  • Garambois S. and M. Dietrich, 2001, Seismoelectric wave conversions in porous media: field measurements and transfer function analysis, Geophysics, 66(5), 1417–1430.
  • Grobbe N. and E. Slob,2016, Seismo-electromagnetic thin-bed responses: Natural signal enhancements?, Journal of Geophysical Research – Solid Earth, 121, 2460-2479. doi: 10.1002/2015JB012381.
  • Haines S., S. Pride, S. Klemperer. & B. Biondi, 2007, Seismoelectric imaging of shallow targets, Geophysics, 72(2), G9–G20, 2007. doi:10.1190/1.2428267.
  • Jouniaux L. and F. Zyserman, 2016, A review on electrokinetically induced seismo-electrics, electro-seismics, and seismo-magnetics for Earth sciences. Solid Earth, 7, 249–284.
  • Jouniaux L. and F. Zyserman, 2016, A review on electrokinetically induced seismo-electrics, electro-seismics, and seismo-magnetics for Earth sciences. Solid Earth, 7, 249–284.
  • Revil A. and A. Jardani, 2010, Seismoelectric response of heavy oil reservoirs: theory and numerical modeling, Geophysical Journal International, 180, 781–797. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04439.x.
  • Revil A., A. Jardani, P. Sava and A. Haas, 2015, The seismoelectric method: theory and application. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-118-66026-3.
  • Strahser M., 2007, Polarization and slowness of seismoelectric signals: a case study, Near Surface Geophysics, 5, 97–114. doi:10.3997/18730604.2006022.
  • Thompson AH., J. R. Sumner, and S. C. Hornbostel, 2007, Electromagnetic-to-seismic conversion. The Leading Edge, 26(4) :428-435. doi : 10.1190/1.2723205.
  • Volarovich M. and G. Sobolev, 1969, Direct piezoelectric prospecting of quartz and pegmatitic veins. Geoexploration, 7(4) :241-246. ISSN 0016-7142. doi : 10.1016/00167142(69)90029-5.
  • Warden S., S. Garambois, P. Sailhac, L. Jouniaux, and M. Bano, 2012, Curvelet-based seismoelectric data processing. Geophysical Journal International, 1533-1550. ISSN 0956540X.
  • Warden S., S. Garambois, L. Jouniaux, D. Brito, P. Sailhac and C. Bordes, 2013, Seismoelectric wave propagation numerical modeling in partially saturated materials. Geophysical Journal International, 1498-1513. ISSN 0956-540X .

Gravity and Magnetism:

  • Fairhead J.D., 2015, Advances in gravity and magnetic processing and interpretation, EAGE publications, ISBN 978-94-6282-175-0
  • Nettleton, L.L. (1939) - Determination of density for the reduction of gravimeter observations, Geophysics, 4, p.176-183.

Reservoir geophysics:

  • Alvarez, P., F. Bolivar, M. Di Luca, and T. Salinas, 2015, Multi-attribute rotation scheme: A tool for reservoir property prediction from seismic inversion attributes, Interpretation, 3, SAE9-SAE18
  • Mari J.L., Arens G., Chapellier D., Gaudiani P., 1999, Geophysics of reservoir and civil engineering, Editions Technip, ISBN 2-7108-0757-2
  • Simandoux, P.,1963, Dielectric measurements in porous media and application to shaly formation. Revue de L’Institut Français du Pétrole, 18, Supplementary Issue, 193–215.
  • Singleton, S., 2009, The effects of seismic data conditioning on pre-stack simultaneous impedance inversion, The Leading Edge, July 2009, 772-781.
  • Tonellot, T., D. Mace, and V. Richard, 2001, Joint stratigraphic inversion of angle-limited stacks: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstract 2001: 227-230.

Online courses and e-book: